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A large part of DNA (more than 98% for humans) is non-coding, meaning that these sections do not serve as patterns for protein sequences.The two strands of DNA run in opposite directions to each other and are thus antiparallel.DNA is used by researchers as a molecular tool to explore physical laws and theories, such as the ergodic theorem and the theory of elasticity.The unique material properties of DNA have made it an attractive molecule for material scientists and engineers interested in micro- and nano-fabrication.
The two DNA strands are called polynucleotides since they are composed of simpler monomer units called nucleotides.
Both chains are coiled round the same axis, and have the same pitch of 34 ångströms (3.4 nanometres).
The pair of chains has a radius of 10 ångströms (1.0 nanometre).
RNA strands are created using DNA strands as a template in a process called transcription.
Under the genetic code, these RNA strands are translated to specify the sequence of amino acids within proteins in a process called translation.
The nitrogenous bases of the two separate polynucleotide strands are bound together, according to base pairing rules (A with T and C with G), with hydrogen bonds to make double-stranded DNA.